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Merging Complicated Tables

- 1 answer

I'm trying to merge tables where rows correspond to a many:1 relationship with "real" things.

I'm writing a blackjack simulator that stores game history in a database with a new set of tables generated each run. The tables are really more like templates, since each game gets its own set of the 3 mutable tables (players, hands, and matches). Here's the layout, where suff is a user-specified suffix to use for the current run:

 - cards
     - id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY
     - cardValue INTEGER NOT NULL 
     - suit INTEGER NOT NULL
 - players_suff
     - whichPlayer INTEGER PRIMARY KEY
     - aiType TEXT NOT NULL
 - hands_suff
     - id BIGSERIAL PRIMARY KEY
     - whichPlayer INTEGER REFERENCES players_suff(whichPlayer) *
     - whichHand BIGINT NOT NULL
     - thisCard INTEGER REFERENCES cards(id)
 - matches_suff
     - id BIGSERIAL PRIMARY KEY
     - whichGame INTEGER NOT NULL
     - dealersHand BIGINT NOT NULL
     - whichPlayer INTEGER REFERENCES players_suff(whichPlayer)
     - thisPlayersHand BIGINT NOT NULL **
     - playerResult INTEGER NOT NULL --AKA who won

Only one cards table is created because its values are constant.

So after running the simulator twice you might have:

hands_firstrun
players_firstrun
matches_firstrun
hands_secondrun
players_secondrun
matches_secondrun

I want to be able to combine these tables if you used the same AI parameters for both of those runs (i.e. players_firstrun and players_secondrun are exactly the same). The problem is that the way I'm inserting hands makes this really messy: whichHand can't be a BIGSERIAL because the relationship of hands_suff rows to "actual hands" is many:1. matches_suff is handled the same way because a blackjack "game" actually consists of a set of games: the set of pairs of each player vs. the dealer. So for 3 players, you actually have 3 rows for each round.

Currently I select the largest whichHand in the table, add 1 to it, then insert all of the rows for one hand. I'm worried this "query-and-insert" will be really slow if I'm merging 2 tables that might both be arbitrarily huge.

When I'm merging tables, I feel like I should be able to (entirely in SQL) query the largest values in whichHand and whichGame once then use them combine the tables, incrementing them for each unique whichHand and whichGame in the table being merged.

(I saw this question, but it doesn't handle using a generated ID in 2 different places). I'm using Postgres and it's OK if the answer is specific to it.

* sadly postgres doesn't allow parameterized table names so this had to be done by manual string substitution. Not the end of the world since the program isn't web-facing and no one except me is likely to ever bother with it, but the SQL injection vulnerability does not make me happy.

** matches_suff(whichPlayersHand) was originally going to reference hands_suff(whichHand) but foreign keys must reference unique values. whichHand isn't unique because a hand is made up of multiple rows, with each row "holding" one card. To query for a hand you select all of those rows with the same value in whichHand. I couldn't think of a more elegant way to do this without resorting to arrays.

EDIT:

This is what I have now:

thomas=# \dt
            List of relations
 Schema |      Name      | Type  | Owner
--------+----------------+-------+--------
 public | cards          | table | thomas
 public | hands_first    | table | thomas
 public | hands_second   | table | thomas
 public | matches_first  | table | thomas
 public | matches_second | table | thomas
 public | players_first  | table | thomas
 public | players_second | table | thomas
(7 rows)

thomas=# SELECT * FROM hands_first
thomas-# \g
 id | whichplayer | whichhand | thiscard
----+-------------+-----------+----------
  1 |           0 |         0 |        6
  2 |           0 |         0 |       63
  3 |           0 |         0 |       41
  4 |           1 |         1 |       76
  5 |           1 |         1 |       23
  6 |           0 |         2 |       51
  7 |           0 |         2 |       29
  8 |           0 |         2 |        2
  9 |           0 |         2 |       92
 10 |           0 |         2 |        6
 11 |           1 |         3 |      101
 12 |           1 |         3 |        8
(12 rows)

thomas=# SELECT * FROM hands_second
thomas-# \g
 id | whichplayer | whichhand | thiscard
----+-------------+-----------+----------
  1 |           0 |         0 |       78
  2 |           0 |         0 |       38
  3 |           1 |         1 |       24
  4 |           1 |         1 |       18
  5 |           1 |         1 |       95
  6 |           1 |         1 |       40
  7 |           0 |         2 |       13
  8 |           0 |         2 |       84
  9 |           0 |         2 |       41
 10 |           1 |         3 |       29
 11 |           1 |         3 |       34
 12 |           1 |         3 |       56
 13 |           1 |         3 |       52



thomas=# SELECT * FROM matches_first
thomas-# \g
 id | whichgame | dealershand | whichplayer | thisplayershand | playerresult
----+-----------+-------------+-------------+-----------------+--------------
  1 |         0 |           0 |           1 |               1 |            1
  2 |         1 |           2 |           1 |               3 |            2
(2 rows)

thomas=# SELECT * FROM matches_second
thomas-# \g
 id | whichgame | dealershand | whichplayer | thisplayershand | playerresult
----+-----------+-------------+-------------+-----------------+--------------
  1 |         0 |           0 |           1 |               1 |            0
  2 |         1 |           2 |           1 |               3 |            2
(2 rows)

I'd like to combine them to have:

hands_combined table:
 id | whichplayer | whichhand | thiscard
----+-------------+-----------+----------
  1 |           0 |         0 |        6 --Seven of Spades
  2 |           0 |         0 |       63 --Queen of Spades
  3 |           0 |         0 |       41 --Three of Clubs
  4 |           1 |         1 |       76
  5 |           1 |         1 |       23
  6 |           0 |         2 |       51
  7 |           0 |         2 |       29
  8 |           0 |         2 |        2
  9 |           0 |         2 |       92
 10 |           0 |         2 |        6
 11 |           1 |         3 |      101
 12 |           1 |         3 |        8
 13 |           0 |         4 |       78
 14 |           0 |         4 |       38
 15 |           1 |         5 |       24
 16 |           1 |         5 |       18
 17 |           1 |         5 |       95
 18 |           1 |         5 |       40
 19 |           0 |         6 |       13
 20 |           0 |         6 |       84
 21 |           0 |         6 |       41
 22 |           1 |         7 |       29
 23 |           1 |         7 |       34
 24 |           1 |         7 |       56
 25 |           1 |         7 |       52

matches_combined table:
 id | whichgame | dealershand | whichplayer | thisplayershand | playerresult
----+-----------+-------------+-------------+-----------------+--------------
  1 |         0 |           0 |           1 |               1 |            1
  2 |         1 |           2 |           1 |               3 |            2
  3 |         2 |           4 |           1 |               5 |            0
  4 |         3 |           6 |           1 |               7 |            2

Each value of "thiscard" represents a playing card in the range [1..104]--52 playing cards with an extra bit representing if it's face up or face down. I didn't post the actual table for space reasons. So player 0 (aka the dealer) had a hand of (Seven of Spades, Queen of Spaces, 3 of Clubs) in the first game.

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Answer

I think you're not using PostgreSQL the way it's intended to be used, plus your table design may not be suitable for what you want to achieve. Whilst it was difficult to understand what you want your solution to achieve, I wrote this, which seems to solve everything you want using a handful of tables only, and functions that return recordsets for simulating your requirement for individual runs. I used Enums and complex types to illustrate some of the features that you may wish to harness from the power of PostgreSQL.

Also, I'm not sure what parameterized table names are (I have never seen anything like it in any RDBMS), but PostgreSQL does allow something perfectly suitable: recordset returning functions.

CREATE TYPE card_value AS ENUM ('1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', '10', 'J', 'Q', 'K');
CREATE TYPE card_suit AS ENUM ('Clubs', 'Diamonds', 'Hearts', 'Spades');
CREATE TYPE card AS (value card_value, suit card_suit, face_up bool);

CREATE TABLE runs (
  run_id bigserial NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
  run_date timestamptz NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP
  );

CREATE TABLE players (
  run_id bigint NOT NULL REFERENCES runs,
  player_no int NOT NULL, -- 0 can be assumed as always the dealer
  ai_type text NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (run_id, player_no)
  );

CREATE TABLE matches (
  run_id bigint NOT NULL REFERENCES runs,
  match_no int NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY (run_id, match_no)
  );

CREATE TABLE hands (
  hand_id bigserial NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
  run_id bigint NOT NULL REFERENCES runs,
  match_no int NOT NULL,
  hand_no int NOT NULL,
  player_no int NOT NULL,
  UNIQUE (run_id, match_no, hand_no),
  FOREIGN KEY (run_id, match_no) REFERENCES matches,
  FOREIGN KEY (run_id, player_no) REFERENCES players
  );

CREATE TABLE deals (
  deal_id bigserial NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
  hand_id bigint NOT NULL REFERENCES hands,
  card card NOT NULL
  );

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION players(int) RETURNS SETOF players AS $$
  SELECT * FROM players WHERE run_id = $1 ORDER BY player_no;
$$ LANGUAGE SQL;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION matches(int) RETURNS SETOF matches AS $$
  SELECT * FROM matches WHERE run_id = $1 ORDER BY match_no;
$$ LANGUAGE SQL;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hands(int) RETURNS SETOF hands AS $$
  SELECT * FROM hands WHERE run_id = $1 ORDER BY match_no, hand_no;
$$ LANGUAGE SQL;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hands(int, int) RETURNS SETOF hands AS $$
  SELECT * FROM hands WHERE run_id = $1 AND match_no = $2 ORDER BY hand_no;
$$ LANGUAGE SQL;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION winner_player (int, int) RETURNS int AS $$
  SELECT player_no
  FROM hands
  WHERE run_id = $1 AND match_no = $2
  ORDER BY hand_no DESC
  LIMIT 1
$$ LANGUAGE SQL;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION next_player_no (int) RETURNS int AS $$
  SELECT CASE WHEN EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM runs WHERE run_id = $1) THEN
         COALESCE((SELECT MAX(player_no) FROM players WHERE run_id = $1), 0) + 1 END
$$ LANGUAGE SQL;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION next_match_no (int) RETURNS int AS $$
  SELECT CASE WHEN EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM runs WHERE run_id = $1) THEN
         COALESCE((SELECT MAX(match_no) FROM matches WHERE run_id = $1), 0) + 1 END
$$ LANGUAGE SQL;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION next_hand_no (int) RETURNS int AS $$
  SELECT CASE WHEN EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM runs WHERE run_id = $1) THEN
         COALESCE((SELECT MAX(hand_no) + 1 FROM hands WHERE run_id = $1), 0) END
$$ LANGUAGE SQL;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION card_to_int (card) RETURNS int AS $$
  SELECT ((SELECT enumsortorder::int-1 FROM pg_enum WHERE enumtypid = 'card_suit'::regtype AND enumlabel = ($1).suit::name) * 13 +
          (SELECT enumsortorder::int-1 FROM pg_enum WHERE enumtypid = 'card_value'::regtype AND enumlabel = ($1).value::name) + 1) *
         CASE WHEN ($1).face_up THEN 2 ELSE 1 END
$$ LANGUAGE SQL; -- SELECT card_to_int(('3', 'Spades', false))

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION int_to_card (int) RETURNS card AS $$
  SELECT ((SELECT enumlabel::card_value FROM pg_enum WHERE enumtypid = 'card_value'::regtype AND enumsortorder = ((($1-1)%13)+1)::real),
          (SELECT enumlabel::card_suit  FROM pg_enum WHERE enumtypid = 'card_suit'::regtype  AND enumsortorder = (((($1-1)/13)::int%4)+1)::real),
          $1 > (13*4))::card
$$ LANGUAGE SQL; -- SELECT i, int_to_card(i) FROM generate_series(1, 13*4*2) i

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION deal_cards(int, int, int, int[]) RETURNS TABLE (player_no int, hand_no int, card card) AS $$
  WITH
    hand AS (
      INSERT INTO hands (run_id, match_no, player_no, hand_no)
      VALUES ($1, $2, $3, next_hand_no($1))
      RETURNING hand_id, player_no, hand_no),
    mydeals AS (
      INSERT INTO deals (hand_id, card)
      SELECT hand_id, int_to_card(card_id)::card AS card
      FROM hand, UNNEST($4) card_id
      RETURNING hand_id, deal_id, card
      )
    SELECT h.player_no, h.hand_no, d.card
    FROM hand h, mydeals d
$$ LANGUAGE SQL;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION deals(int) RETURNS TABLE (deal_id bigint, hand_no int, player_no int, card int) AS $$
  SELECT d.deal_id, h.hand_no, h.player_no, card_to_int(d.card)
  FROM hands h
  JOIN deals d ON (d.hand_id = h.hand_id)
  WHERE h.run_id = $1
  ORDER BY d.deal_id;
$$ LANGUAGE SQL;

INSERT INTO runs DEFAULT VALUES; -- Add first run
INSERT INTO players VALUES (1, 0, 'Dealer'); -- dealer always zero
INSERT INTO players VALUES (1, next_player_no(1), 'Player 1');

INSERT INTO matches VALUES (1, next_match_no(1)); -- First match
SELECT * FROM deal_cards(1, 1, 0, ARRAY[6, 63, 41]);
SELECT * FROM deal_cards(1, 1, 1, ARRAY[76, 23]);
SELECT * FROM deal_cards(1, 1, 0, ARRAY[51, 29, 2, 92, 6]);
SELECT * FROM deal_cards(1, 1, 1, ARRAY[101, 8]);

INSERT INTO matches VALUES (1, next_match_no(1)); -- Second match
SELECT * FROM deal_cards(1, 2, 0, ARRAY[78, 38]);
SELECT * FROM deal_cards(1, 2, 1, ARRAY[24, 18, 95, 40]);
SELECT * FROM deal_cards(1, 2, 0, ARRAY[13, 84, 41]);
SELECT * FROM deal_cards(1, 2, 1, ARRAY[29, 34, 56, 52]);

SELECT * FROM deals(1); -- This is the output you need (hands_combined table)

-- This view can be used to retrieve the list of all winning hands
CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW winning_hands AS
  SELECT DISTINCT ON (run_id, match_no) *
  FROM hands
  ORDER BY run_id, match_no, hand_no DESC;

SELECT * FROM winning_hands;
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source: stackoverflow.com
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