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Decrypt AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding Encryption In Dart

- 1 answer

I am already having encryption code in java. Now I want to consume APIs from my server. Even after trying various tutorials and sample codes I am not able to successfully decrypt the hash.

I know fixed salt and IV is not recommended at all. But for simplicity and to understand the issue I have kept salt and IV to "00000000000000000000000000000000";

Hash After Encryption from Java = "XjxCg0KK0ZDWa4XMFhykIw=="; Private key used = "Mayur12354673645"

Can someone please help me to decrypt above string using dart.

JAVA Code

public String encrypt(String salt, String iv, String passphrase,
                              String plaintext) {
            try {
                SecretKey key = generateKey(salt, passphrase);
                byte[] encrypted = doFinal(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, key, iv, plaintext
                        .getBytes("UTF-8"));
                return base64(encrypted);
            } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) {
                throw fail(e);
            }
        }
    
        public String decrypt(String salt, String iv, String passphrase,
                              String ciphertext) {
            try {
                SecretKey key = generateKey(salt, passphrase);
                byte[] decrypted = doFinal(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, key, iv,
                        base64(ciphertext));
                return new String(decrypted, "UTF-8");
            } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e) {
                throw fail(e);
            }
        }    
    
    private SecretKey generateKey(String salt, String passphrase) {
                try {
                    SecretKeyFactory factory = SecretKeyFactory
                            .getInstance("PBKDF2WithHmacSHA1");
                    KeySpec spec = new PBEKeySpec(passphrase.toCharArray(), hex(salt),
                            iterationCount, keySize);
                    SecretKey key = new SecretKeySpec(factory.generateSecret(spec)
                            .getEncoded(), "AES");
                    return key;
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                    return null;
                }
            }

private byte[] doFinal(int encryptMode, SecretKey key, String iv,
                           byte[] bytes) {
        try {
            cipher.init(encryptMode, key, new IvParameterSpec(hex(iv)));
            return cipher.doFinal(bytes);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            throw fail(e);
        }
    }

My Dart Code

import 'package:pointycastle/block/aes_fast.dart';
import 'package:pointycastle/block/modes/cbc.dart';
import 'package:pointycastle/digests/sha1.dart';
import 'package:pointycastle/key_derivators/pbkdf2.dart';
import 'package:pointycastle/macs/hmac.dart';
import 'package:pointycastle/paddings/pkcs7.dart';
import 'package:pointycastle/pointycastle.dart';
import 'dart:convert';
import 'dart:typed_data';
import 'package:convert/convert.dart';
import 'dart:developer';

import 'package:pointycastle/random/fortuna_random.dart';

const KEY_SIZE = 16;
const ITERATION_COUNT = 5;

class EncryptionHandler {
  static const CBC_MODE = 'CBC';

  static Uint8List deriveKey(dynamic password,
      {String salt = '0000000000000000',
      int iterationCount = ITERATION_COUNT,
      int derivedKeyLength = KEY_SIZE}) {
    if (password == null || password.isEmpty) {
      throw new ArgumentError('password must not be empty');
    }

    if (password is String) {
      password = createUint8ListFromString(password);
    }

    Uint8List saltBytes = createUint8ListFromString(salt);
    String hexSalt = formatBytesAsHexString(saltBytes);

    KeyDerivator keyDerivator =
    new PBKDF2KeyDerivator(new HMac(new SHA1Digest(), 64));

    Pbkdf2Parameters params =
        new Pbkdf2Parameters(saltBytes, iterationCount, derivedKeyLength);

    keyDerivator.init(params);

    return keyDerivator.process(password);
  }

  Uint8List createUint8ListFromHexString(String hex) {
    var result = new Uint8List(hex.length ~/ 2);
    for (var i = 0; i < hex.length; i += 2) {
      var num = hex.substring(i, i + 2);
      var byte = int.parse(num, radix: 16);
      result[i ~/ 2] = byte;
    }
    return result;
  }

  static String formatBytesAsHexString(Uint8List bytes) {
    var result = new StringBuffer();
    for (var i = 0; i < bytes.lengthInBytes; i++) {
      var part = bytes[i];
      result.write('${part < 16 ? '0' : ''}${part.toRadixString(16)}');
    }
    return result.toString();
  }

  static Uint8List pad(Uint8List src, int blockSize) {
    var pad = new PKCS7Padding();
    pad.init(null);

    int padLength = blockSize - (src.length % blockSize);
    var out = new Uint8List(src.length + padLength)..setAll(0, src);
    pad.addPadding(out, src.length);

    return out;
  }

  static Uint8List unpad(Uint8List src) {
    var pad = new PKCS7Padding();
    pad.init(null);

    int padLength = pad.padCount(src);
    int len = src.length - padLength;

    return new Uint8List(len)..setRange(0, len, src);
  }

  static String encrypt(String password, String plaintext,
      {String mode = CBC_MODE}) {
    Uint8List derivedKey = deriveKey(password);
    KeyParameter keyParam = new KeyParameter(derivedKey);
    BlockCipher aes = new AESFastEngine();

    var rnd = FortunaRandom();
    rnd.seed(keyParam);
    Uint8List iv = createUint8ListFromString("0000000000000000");

    BlockCipher cipher;
    ParametersWithIV params = new ParametersWithIV(keyParam, iv);
    cipher = new CBCBlockCipher(aes);
    cipher.init(true, params);

    Uint8List textBytes = createUint8ListFromString(plaintext);
    Uint8List paddedText = pad(textBytes, aes.blockSize);
    Uint8List cipherBytes = _processBlocks(cipher, paddedText);
    Uint8List cipherIvBytes = new Uint8List(cipherBytes.length + iv.length)
      ..setAll(0, iv)
      ..setAll(iv.length, cipherBytes);

    return base64.encode(cipherIvBytes);
  }

  static String decrypt(String password, String ciphertext) {
    log('Password: $password');
    Uint8List derivedKey = deriveKey(password);
    log('derivedKey: $derivedKey');
    KeyParameter keyParam = new KeyParameter(derivedKey);
    log('keyParam: $keyParam');
    BlockCipher aes = new AESFastEngine();

    Uint8List cipherIvBytes = base64.decode(ciphertext);
    log('cipherIvBytes: $cipherIvBytes');
    Uint8List iv = createUint8ListFromString("0000000000000000");
    // Uint8List iv = new Uint8List(aes.blockSize)
    //   ..setRange(0, aes.blockSize, cipherIvBytes);
    log('iv: $iv');
    BlockCipher cipher;
    ParametersWithIV params = new ParametersWithIV(keyParam, iv);
    log('params: $params');
    cipher = new CBCBlockCipher(aes);
    log('cipher: $cipher');
    cipher.init(false, params);

    int cipherLen = cipherIvBytes.length - aes.blockSize;
    Uint8List cipherBytes = new Uint8List(cipherLen)
      ..setRange(0, cipherLen, cipherIvBytes, aes.blockSize);
    Uint8List paddedText = _processBlocks(cipher, cipherBytes);
    log('cipher: $paddedText');
    Uint8List textBytes = paddedText;
    // Uint8List textBytes = unpad(paddedText);

    return new String.fromCharCodes(textBytes);
  }

  static Uint8List createUint8ListFromString(String s) {
    var ret = new Uint8List(s.length);
    for (var i = 0; i < s.length; i++) {
      ret[i] = s.codeUnitAt(i);
    }
    return ret;
  }

  static Uint8List _processBlocks(BlockCipher cipher, Uint8List inp) {
    var out = new Uint8List(inp.lengthInBytes);

    for (var offset = 0; offset < inp.lengthInBytes;) {
      var len = cipher.processBlock(inp, offset, out, offset);
      offset += len;
    }

    return out;
  }
}
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Answer

The code can be simplified by using existing Dart libraries for the conversion binary to hex and vice versa. PointyCastle also supports the (PKCS7) padding, so that a custom implementation is not necessary, which also reduces the code. On the Internet you can find several dart implementations for AES/CBC/PKCS7Padding in combination with PBKDF2 that use PointyCastle, e.g. here and here.

A possible Dart implementation for decryption using the pointycastle and convert package is e.g. (for simplicity without exception handling):

import 'dart:typed_data';
import "package:pointycastle/export.dart";
import 'package:convert/convert.dart';
import 'dart:convert';
...
static Uint8List decrypt(Uint8List ciphertext, Uint8List key, Uint8List iv) {
  CBCBlockCipher cipher = new CBCBlockCipher(new AESFastEngine());
  ParametersWithIV<KeyParameter> params = new ParametersWithIV<KeyParameter>(new KeyParameter(key), iv);
  PaddedBlockCipherParameters<ParametersWithIV<KeyParameter>, Null> paddingParams = new PaddedBlockCipherParameters<ParametersWithIV<KeyParameter>, Null>(params, null);
  PaddedBlockCipherImpl paddingCipher = new PaddedBlockCipherImpl(new PKCS7Padding(), cipher);
  paddingCipher.init(false, paddingParams);
  return paddingCipher.process(ciphertext);
}

static Uint8List generateKey(Uint8List salt, Uint8List passphrase){
  KeyDerivator derivator = new PBKDF2KeyDerivator(new HMac(new SHA1Digest(), 64));
  Pbkdf2Parameters params = new Pbkdf2Parameters(salt, 5, 16);
  derivator.init(params);
  return derivator.process(passphrase);
}

With the posted test data:

String saltHex = '00000000000000000000000000000000';
String ivHex = '00000000000000000000000000000000';
String passphraseUtf8 = 'Mayur12354673645';
String ciphertextBase64 = "XjxCg0KK0ZDWa4XMFhykIw==";

Uint8List salt = hex.decode(saltHex);
Uint8List passphrase = utf8.encode(passphraseUtf8);
Uint8List key = generateKey(salt, passphrase);

Uint8List ciphertext = base64.decode(ciphertextBase64);
Uint8List iv = hex.decode(ivHex);
Uint8List decrypted = decrypt(ciphertext, key, iv);

print(utf8.decode(decrypted)); // This is working

the ciphertext can be decrypted to: This is working.

An alternative to PointyCastle is the cryptography package, which allows even a more compact implementation in the current case:

import 'package:cryptography/cryptography.dart';
import 'package:convert/convert.dart';
import 'dart:convert';
import 'dart:typed_data';
...
static Uint8List decrypt(Uint8List ciphertext, Uint8List key, Uint8List iv) {
  SecretKey secretKey = new SecretKey(key);
  Nonce nonce = new Nonce(iv);
  Uint8List decrypted = aesCbc.decryptSync(ciphertext, secretKey: secretKey, nonce: nonce);
  return decrypted;
}

static Uint8List generateKey(Uint8List salt, Uint8List passphrase){
  Pbkdf2 pbkdf2 = Pbkdf2(macAlgorithm: new Hmac(sha1), iterations: 5, bits: 128);
  return pbkdf2.deriveBitsSync(passphrase, nonce: Nonce(salt));
}

Note that in practice IV and salt must be generated randomly for each encryption (which you already mentioned in your question). Apart from that the iteration count of 5 is generally much too low.

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source: stackoverflow.com
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